Mr. Trichet was President of the European Central Bank from November 2003 to October 2011, and was President of the European Systemic Risk Board since its inception until October 2011. Previously, Mr. Trichet led the French Treasury for six years, chaired the Paris Club for sovereign debt rescheduling for 10 years, chaired the European "Monetary Committee" for 2 years and was governor of Banque de France for 10 years. Early in his career he was advisor to the French President for microeconomics, energy, industry and research from 1978 to 1981. Mr. Trichet is an ingenieur civil des mines. He graduated from the Institut d’études politiques de Paris, the Université de Paris in economics and the Ecole nationale d’administration.